Ska, Skulle: SHALL, SHOULD, have to, must … Hjälpverb: HELPING VERB

Helping verbs in English language are: be, am, is, are, was, were, been, has, have, had, do, did, does; shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, can and could. Helping verbs or auxiliary verbs are used along with the main verb to describe the past or present or future.

Note the conjugation or the forms of the three main helping verbs ‘be, do, have’: TO BE: to be, am, is, are, was, were, and been; TO HAVE: have, has, and had; TO DO: do, does, did. These three verbs (to be, to do, to have) can function as the main verb or as helping verbs in a sentence.

In English language, modal auxiliary verbs or modal helping verbs are the verbs that do not change their form, and they are: will, would, shall, should, can, could; may, might; must, and ought to.

IN Swedish language, helping verbs can change their form like ‘to be, to do, to have’ and the others except måste. Måste has only two forms: måste & måst.

The helping verbs and their forms or conjugations based on particular aspect of time are:

Infinitiv Imperativ Presens Preterirum Supinum
OUGHT TO Att böra . . . Bör Borde Bort
MAY (get) Att få Får Fick Fått
HAVE Att ha / Hava Ha Har Hade Haft
CAN Att kunna . . . Kan Kunde Kunnat
WILL, SHALL Att skola . . . Ska (skall) Skulle Skolat
WILL, WANT Att vilja . . . Vill Ville Velat
MUST Måste . . . Måste Måste Måst
NEED Att behöva Behöv Behöver Behövde Behövt
USED TO Att bruka Bruka Brukar Brukarde Brukart
 START Att börja Börja Börjar Började Börjat


Ska (SHALL) is the present tense verb. Its past tense is skulle (SHOULD). Ska refers to shall, also to must, and also nearly refers to WILL & WOULD depending upon the context. Skola/ska expresses an intention, aim, purpose that one does or wants to do in the future. Examples:

Det ska bli regn i morgon. IT SHALL BE RAINING TOMORROW.

De ska åka till Stockholm i kväll. THEY WILL GO (TRAVEL) TO STOCKHOLM IN THE EVENING.

Vi ska gå till skogen nästa vecka. WE SHALL GO TO THE FOREST NEXT WEEK.

De sa att de skulle gå på teater nästa månad. THEY SAID THAT THEY WOULD GO TO THE THEATRE NEXT MONTH.

Du ska vara hemma före tio utan misslyckande. YOU SHOULD (OR MUST) BE HOME BEFORE TEN WITHOUT FAILURE.

SKOLA: note that skola is the infinite form of ska, and it also functions as a noun and as a common verb.

Skola means school. En skola = A school. Like högskola (college), internatskola (boarding school), skidskola (ski school), scenskola (drama school), simskola (swimming school)

Skola is also a common verb meaning to train, to teach:

Infinitiv Imperativ Presens Preterirum Supinum
Att skola Skola Skolar Skolade Skolat


Skolades is passive verb, skolad means skilled and skolning means training.

De skolar på en skola I Göteborg. Det finns inga bra och dåliga skolor i Sverige men bara skolor. THEY ARE SCHOOLED AT A SCHOOL IN GOTHENBURG. THERE ARE NO GOOD SCHOOLS AND BAD SCHOOLS IN SWEDEN BUT ONLY SCHOOLS.